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Journal Articles Agronomie, Environnement & Sociétés Year : 2022

Effect of cover crops on flora in viticulture

Effet des couverts sur la flore en viticulture

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Léo Garcia
Guillaume Fried

Abstract

The spontaneous vegetation in vineyards is diverse and occupies an important spatial and temporal place. This vegetation is impacted by the different soil management practices and the pedoclimatic diversity of the vineyard terroirs. Its management is thought out according to the agronomic objectives of yield and quality, notably to limit competition with the vine. This management also responds to other ecological challenges: reduction in the use of herbicides, reduction in fossil fuel consumption, and the agro-ecological transition of winegrowing systems. In the "mixed" management method, which is often used, weed management in the inter-row is mainly based on mechanical weeding and/or grassing with mowing, while weeding in the row uses a chemical herbicide. In 2016, in France, inter-row weed control, whether partial or total, concerns 52% of the national vineyard area and varies greatly depending on the risk of drought and the density of plantation, which are decisive factors in the establishment and management of seeded cover. Among the many services, often linked to soil quality, potentially provided by these sown cover crops called service crops is the reduction of weeds by limiting their growth and development and inhibiting their germination. Finally, the management of spontaneous biodiversity within plots can satisfy other services such as the production of floral resources for pollinators or the production of biomass for grazing.
La flore des parcelles viticoles est diverse et occupe une place spatiale et temporelle importante dans les vignobles ; elle varie selon les pratiques d'entretien du sol et le pédoclimat. La gestion de cette flore est déterminée selon des objectifs de rendement et de qualité, et également des enjeux écologiques (herbicides, énergie fossile, et transition agroécologique). Aujourd'hui, la gestion des adventices repose majoritairement sur le désherbage mécanique et/ou l'enherbement avec tonte dans l'inter-rang, et le désherbage du rang utilise un herbicide chimique. En 2016, en France, l'enherbement sur l'inter-rang concerne la moitié du vignoble national et varie suivant le risque de sécheresse et la densité de plantation. Les cultures de services rendent de multiples services, dont la réduction des adventices. Enfin la gestion des adventices en parcelles viticoles peut fournir des services en relation avec la biodiversité (production de ressources florales pour les pollinisateurs ou de ressources fourragères).
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Dates and versions

hal-03776173 , version 1 (13-09-2022)

Licence

Attribution - NonCommercial - NoDerivatives - CC BY 4.0

Identifiers

  • HAL Id : hal-03776173 , version 1

Cite

Aurélie Metay, Léo Garcia, Elena Kazakou, Guillaume Fried. Effet des couverts sur la flore en viticulture. Agronomie, Environnement & Sociétés, 2022, Pour gérer les adventices, quelles opportunités et quels effets des couverts végétaux?, 12 (1), pp.1-19. ⟨hal-03776173⟩
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